SPP Results

This overview is from SPP’s annual reports for Fiscal Years 2017 and 2018, describing July 1, 2016 – June 30, 2018 (FY17 and FY18). See our publications page for studies and evaluation summaries from earlier years.

In FY18, changes in Washington Department of Corrections’ (WA Corrections’) requirements for program evaluation and research continued to evolve. This required significant investments of staff time by both SPP-Evergreen and the Research and Data Analytics (RDA) office at WA Corrections Headquarters. By the end of the fiscal year, partners had reached shared understanding and achievable plans for moving forward.

Research with External Partners

Institute for Human-Animal Connection

Dr. Kevin Morris and colleagues with the Institute for Human-Animal Connection at Denver University (DU) continued the analysis of data gathered the summer of 2017, assessing social/emotional impacts for inmates who participate in dog programs. They prepared to move into a second phase of the research; SPP-Evergreen and RDA supported Dr. Morris in shaping a data request for participating inmates as well as a matched group. SPP-Evergreen will provide some financial support to help cover review expenses for the project as well. When the study is complete, the partnership plans to publish best-practices for prison dog programs.

University of Utah and NASA

Students at MCCCW fill out surveys intended to assess their knowledge and attitudes about astrobiology and learning and doing science. Photo by Ricky Osborne.

To evaluate the Astrobiology for the Incarcerated lectures, program partners created pre- and post-program surveys to assess knowledge and attitudes about the topic, science in general, and related education and employment. These surveys were used for all host states and counties. SPP-Evergreen staff coordinated the effort for Human Subjects Review (HSR) in both Ohio and Washington. In Washington, the surveys, associated methodology and consent forms required formal approval by Washington State Institutional Review Board (WSIRB). For both Evergreen and WA Corrections, this was the first—and thus the “test”—case for the newly required process. After mutual review and consults with WSIRB, we submitted our application in early December 2017. We received approval in January 2018. Surveys were delivered at all WA Astrobiology events in April, submitted to University of Utah and NASA partners, and are undergoing analyses and review.

Program Evaluation

We survey students of our workshop series, technicians in ecological conservation programs, and inmates and staff in the Nature Imagery program at WCC. Thus far, only surveys from the workshop series have undergone analyses.

Lecture/Workshop Series

A workshop series student answers knowledge questions at the end of the session. Photo by Keegan Curry.

In 2016, SPP program coordinator Liliana Caughman  analyzed data from lecture series students from seven years’ of responses, encompassing 15,874 surveys. Her key findings were:

  • The students are gaining environmental knowledge from the lectures. As the years pass, students are learning more from our lectures. Does this mean they are becoming better students, or that the lectures themselves have improved?
  • As Tiffany Webb found in 2014, students’ positive attitudes about the environment have been steadily increasing over time. Many students do not become more positive about the environment as a result of a single lecture, but most started with such positive regard of environmental topics that no change is still a good thing! We see this as confirmation of what we’ve experienced: that there has been a positive culture shift within Washington State prisons.

These results were strongly statistically significant, giving us solid evidence that the program is effective. Liliana added a new measure of lecture quality, and found:

  • Using 3 criteria to describe how engaging a lecture is, scoring how much a lecture provided hands-on experiences 2. empowered students to be helpful to others who are important to them 3. built community and connections between people, there is a nice correlation between each lecture’s engagement score and how much environmental attitudes increased for the same lecture. These results suggest that Liliana’s engagement score is a valuable measure of a lecture’s quality.

In 2017, we facilitated critical discussion of these results with lecture series students at both host facilities, and found further validation. Both sets of students emphasized interest in interactive sessions, and connecting every topic with their current lives and future plans. We revised program protocols to better meet that interest, and changed the program name from Science and Sustainability Lecture Series to Environmental Engagement Workshop Series.

Reentry

In June, 2016, we offered a one-time reentry presentation, coupled with a reentry survey for those attendees. From 30 complete surveys, we found:

  • “Letters of Reference” and “Host Re-entry Guest Experts” were the assistance types most often cited at being the most important. Those options also ranked 1st and 2nd when considering each respondents top three choices. From these results, SPP-Evergreen staff will prioritize creating letters of reference for technicians and students who have demonstrated ability, skills, and/or work ethic.

From qualitative responses to concerns about post-release challenges, the vast majority were worried about employment and housing.

Student Theses

Master of Environmental Studies candidate Emily Passarelli presents findings on former SPP participants environmental identity and attitudes. Photo by Ricky Osborne.

Two Master of Environmental Studies students presented their findings from SPP programs.

Sadie Gilliom, SPP Turtle Program Coordinator, completed a qualitative study of WA Corrections staff and leadership involved in the turtle program at CCCC and LCC. Key findings were:

  • Staff reported that the program increases job satisfaction and decreases stress
  • Staff described the program as catalyzing a shift from punitive to collaborative and offender to human: positive impact on staff and residents
  • The program is a small step in the right direction in the big picture: program expansion and more collaborative training would be beneficial

Emily Passarelli, SPP Green Track Coordinator, interviewed former conservation technicians and Roots of Success instructors to characterize their environmental attitudes and identities. Key findings were:

  • Environmental identities are being formed in-program and lasting post release.
  • Participants have been pursuing environmental education and plan to pursue environmental careers.
  • Participants are sharing what they learned with their families and communities.

 

Data Requests

WA Corrections research staff provided data on three sets of SPP participants: Roots of Success instructors, Roots of Success graduates (students), and Ecological Conservation program technicians. All three data sets ended June 30, 2017, and started with earliest records: spring 2013 for Roots of Success, and ~2010 for first full records from a conservation program. Results help us describe incarcerated participants in SPP programs, as compared to WA prison residents overall (Agency Fact Card). We cannot claim that any of the results below were caused by participation in our program; however, we find value in better knowing the attributes and habits of SPP instructors, students, and technicians. Key findings summarized for each group below.

Roots of Success Instructors

From data on 32 Roots of Success instructors, we see higher racial diversity than the general population: 53% White compared to 71% White statewide.

Comparing pre-program, during program, and post-program rates, General Infractions are higher during the program, and drop to slightly below the pre-program rate when program participation ends (4.5/15.4/4.2). Serious and violent infraction rates both drop to low levels (6.1/0.0/0.4 and 1.8/0.0/0.0). Rates of grievances decline slightly during and post-program (14.9/14.2/12.1).

Roots of Success Student Graduates

Roots of Success instructors and graduates pose for a class photo at a graduation ceremony. Photo by DOC staff.

We received data for 1,015 Roots of Success graduates of the full curriculum. Again, we see higher racial diversity than the general population: 64% White compared to 71% White statewide. The difference appears due to increased participation by Black students: 25% of Roots graduates are Black, compared to 18% statewide. Student graduates in this program appear to be more racially diverse than those in the SPP Lecture Series: from 2015 data from the lecture series, 73% of those students were White, and only 15% were Black.

Comparing pre-program, during program, and post-program rates, student’s general infractions drop during the program, and rebound slightly following graduation (10.5/6.2/8.2). Serious and violent infraction rates both drop to lower levels (5.6/2.8/2.9 and 1.3/0.6/0.6). Rates of grievances decline slightly during, and then rebound (28.8/20.4/28.8).

Ecological Conservation Technicians

Prairie Conservation Nursery technicians fill planting tubes with soil. Photo by Ricky Osborne.

From data on 139 conservation technicians, we see lower racial diversity than the general population: 78% White compared to 71% White statewide. Asian/Pacific Islanders show a relatively high rate of participation, 8% compared to 4% statewide, and Black technicians are relatively rare, 10% compared to 18% statewide.

Comparing pre-program, during program, and post-program rates, general infractions are higher during the program, and then drop to below the pre-program rate (9.7/11.7/4.9). Serious and violent infraction rates drop during and post-program (3.0/2.2/2.2 and 1.0/0.0/0.1). Rates of grievances decline during and post-program (10.9/4.1/2.4).

Since the first SPP conservation program in 2009, 91 have released from prison. Again, most of these have been in the community less than 2 years. 87% have not returned to prison; this does not satisfy WA Corrections definition of recidivism, but it suggests relatively successful reintegration.

Questions for Further Study
These findings suggest future inquiry and/or program development:

  • How to promote more racial diversity in SPP workshop/lecture series and ecological conservation programs?
  • What accounts for increase in general infractions for Roots Instructors and Conservation technicians during participation?
  • To gauge recidivism rates, repeat data request in ~2 years